Thursday, September 17, 2015

10 Key Concepts of Near-Universal Salvation

In an effort to condense and clarify my views on the subject of near-universal salvation, I’ve created the following list of concepts that are central to my thesis. Certainly there are other concepts that could be included, but hopefully these ten will provide a simple overview of the beautiful symphony of salvational truths taught in the scriptures. I won’t elaborate on any of the following points in this particular post, just present them for the reader’s consideration:

1. God desires to save and exalt all of His children (and He’s very good at accomplishing whatever He desires!).1

2. In the aftermath of the Fall of mankind, the Atonement of Jesus Christ and wise use of our agency are necessary to make that glorious objective a reality.2

3. The sons of perdition are the only ones who put themselves, by choice, outside of the reach of the Atonement.  They refuse to repent and have faith in Christ.3

4. All others, whether in mortality or in the post-mortal spirit world, will come to accept and follow Christ (sooner or later they will repent...and sooner is always better than later!).4

5. By the Judgment Day, only two general classes of individuals will exist--the wicked (the sons of perdition) and the righteous (anyone who inherits a degree of glory).5

6. The righteous will be clean and will have continual help (i.e., the Holy Ghost, ministering angels, etc.) on the road to perfection.6

7. Our choices in this life do matter, and in the resurrection some will have advanced further on the path than others.7

8. However--wherever they are on that path (telestial, terrestrial, or celestial), that path has only one end--eternal life and exaltation, a fulness of the Father.8

9. The telestial, terrestrial, and celestial are inextricably linked and by their very nature imply a progression (i.e., Jacob’s Ladder, faith->hope->charity, the stages of the temple endowment, the seed of faith growing into a tree of life, etc.).9

10. Obedience to the laws and ordinances of the gospel is essential to obtaining eternal life.  God’s kingdom is a kingdom of order.  The burden and blessing of the seed of Abraham is to ensure that the gospel and its associated ordinances are made available to everyone.10


1. Mark 10:26-27; John 3:16-17; Moses 1:39; Abr. 3:17.
2. 2 Ne. 2:25-29.
3. Alma 12:12-18.
4. Alma 12:33-35; D&C 138:58-59.
5. D&C 29:26-28.
6. Alma 5:21; D&C 76:86-88.
7. D&C 130:18-19.
8. 2 Ne. 31:18-20; JST John 1:16.
9. Gen. 28:12; Alma 32:26-43; Moro. 10:20-22.  See also “Rooms in the Temple” at the Church-sponsored website: Mormon Temples. (
10. A of F 3; D&C 132:5-8; Abr. 2:8-11.

Monday, September 14, 2015

"I Command You to Repent"--A Commentary on D&C 19:1-20

I used to think that D&C 19:15 was one of the harshest-sounding scriptures I knew:

“Therefore I command you to repent--repent, lest I smite you by the rod of my mouth, and by my wrath, and by my anger, and your sufferings be sore--how sore you know not, how exquisite you know not, yea, how hard to bear you know not.”

On its own, the language in this passage conjures the image of an irascible deity, armed with thunderbolts, ready to strike down any who dare defy his suzerainty.  This is the supposedly vengeful god of the Old Testament who sends down fire from heaven to consume unwitting soldiers who were just doing their duty as they tried to arrest Elijah; the god who inexplicably turns Lot’s wife into a pillar of salt for the egregious error of a brief glance over her shoulder at the fire and brimstone raining down on her hastily abandoned home; the god who smites poor Uzzah dead for the supreme affront of steadying the ark when he merely feared it would topple from its ox-drawn cart.  This is the angry judge who is going to decree the full measure of punishment possible for those who fail to live up to his impossibly perfect standards, a god of severe justice who has no mercy for any except his favorites whom he has “elected...[to] be saved, whilst all around [them] are elected to be cast by [his] wrath down to hell”1  This is who we’re hearing from in D&C 19:15, isn’t it?
No, of course it isn’t!  Such a god doesn’t exist and wouldn’t be worthy of our worship even if he did. We’re listening to the voice of a real Person here, not a god “whose image is in the likeness of the world, and whose substance is that of an idol, which waxeth old and shall perish in Babylon, even Babylon the great, which shall fall.”  The truly benevolent God of the Old Testament is the same Being whose words are recorded in D&C 19:15--none other than the Great Jehovah, the Lord Jesus Christ--that holy, meek, and loving Son of God who willingly laid down His precious life that we might live.
Like most scriptures, when D&C 19:15 is read out of context it can present a distorted picture of the truths it was meant to convey.  Let’s look at this passage in light of the verses that surround it, and in view of the concept of a near-universal salvation for the human family.  A belief in near-universal salvation supposes that all except the sons of perdition will be saved and exalted, and that everyone must repent and be made clean before the Judgment Day if they expect to have an inheritance in the kingdom heaven. This paradigm gives us deeper appreciation for what the Lord is attempting to teach us in this revelation, which focuses on the dividing line between the wicked and the righteous in that fateful day to come.
Let’s start at the beginning of Section 19:
“I AM Alpha and Omega, Christ the Lord; yea, even I am he, the beginning and the end, the Redeemer of the world.”2
The Lord identifies Himself as Jehovah, whose mission is to redeem mankind.
“I, having accomplished and finished the will of him whose I am, even the Father, concerning me--having done this that I might subdue all things unto myself--”3
By descending below all, all became subject to Him.4
“Retaining all power, even to the destroying of Satan and his works at the end of the world, and the last great day of judgment, which I shall pass upon the inhabitants thereof, judging every man according to his works and the deeds which he hath done.”5
Here is the setting.  We are viewing “the last great day of judgment.”  What is spoken of in succeeding verses must be viewed in this context.
“And surely every man must repent or suffer, for I, God am endless.”6
Failure to repent leads to suffering.  What is the suffering being spoken of in this verse? We'll find out shortly.
“Wherefore, I revoke not the judgments which I shall pass, but woes shall go forth, weeping, wailing and gnashing of teeth, yea, to those who are found on my left hand.”7
Here is a clear reference to the sons of perdition!  They are those who are found on the left hand of God in the Judgment Day.8
“Nevertheless, it is not written that there shall be no end to this torment, but it is written endless torment.  Again, it is written eternal damnation; wherefore it is more express than other scriptures, that it might work upon the hearts of the children of men, altogether for my name’s glory.”9
What torment?  The torment of the sons of perdition.  What damnation?  The damnation of those same wicked souls at the Last Day.
“Wherefore, I will explain unto you this mystery, for it is meet unto you to know even as mine apostles.  I speak unto you that are chosen in this thing, even as one, that you may enter into my rest.”10
We are told about this mystery so that we can enter into the rest of the Lord and avoid the awful fate of the sons of perdition.
“For, behold, the mystery of godliness, how great is it!  For, behold, I am endless, and the punishment which is given from my hand is endless punishment, for Endless is my name. Wherefore--”11
We can almost hear a drum roll here, fixing our attention on the unveiling of the mystery so long misunderstood:
“Eternal punishment is God’s punishment.  Endless punishment is God’s punishment.”12
This is analogous to what is meant by eternal life.  Eternal life is God’s life.  Endless or everlasting life is God’s life.  In this case, though, we’re focusing on the punishment. Who is being punished here?  All of us?  No, the punishment referred to here is for the sons of perdition only.  Keep the context in mind.  The torment, punishment, and damnation spoken of throughout these passages is that which is suffered by “those who are found on my left hand”--the sons of perdition.  Their torment is their punishment.  Their damnation is to be cursed and cast out of the kingdom of God.
The Prophet Joseph Smith observed:
“A man is his own tormentor and his own condemner.  Hence the saying, They shall go into the lake that burns with fire and brimstone.  The torment of disappointment in the mind of man is as exquisite as a lake burning with fire and brimstone.  I say, so is the torment of man.”13
“Wherefore, I command you to repent, and keep the commandments which you have received by the hand of my servant Joseph Smith, Jun., in my name.  And it is by my almighty power that you have received them; Therefore I command you to repent--repent, lest I smite you by the rod of my mouth, and by my wrath, and by my anger, and your sufferings be sore--how sore you know not, how exquisite you know not, yea, how hard to bear you know not.”13
Now it becomes clear!  The wrathful rebuke spoken of in verse 15 is reserved for the sons of perdition!  They are the only ones who ultimately refuse to repent.  They are the only ones whose “sufferings [will] be sore--how sore you know not, how exquisite you know not, yea how hard to bear you know not.”  They will suffer endless torment.  They will experience eternal damnation.
How fierce will burn the fire in their minds at that dreadful day!  The prophet Moroni gave a solemn warning to those who are in danger of that dire outcome:
“And now, I speak also concerning those who do not believe in Christ.  Behold, will ye believe in the day of your visitation--behold, when the Lord shall come, yea, even that great day when the earth shall be rolled together as a scroll, and the elements shall melt with fervent heat, yea, in that great day when ye shall be brought to stand before the Lamb of God--then will ye say that there is no God?  Then will ye longer deny the Christ, or can ye behold the Lamb of God?  Do ye suppose that ye shall dwell with him under a consciousness of your guilt?  Do ye suppose that ye could be happy to dwell with that holy Being, when your souls are racked with a consciousness of guilt that ye have ever abused his laws?  Behold, I say unto you that ye would be more miserable to dwell with a holy and just God, under a consciousness of your filthiness before him, than ye would to dwell with the damned souls in hell.  For behold, when ye shall be brought to see your nakedness before God, and also the glory of God, and the holiness of Jesus Christ, it will kindle a flame of unquenchable fire upon you.”15
Moroni’s warning gives us clarification concerning how the pain and anguish of the sons of perdition can be considered both self-inflicted (as attested by the Prophet Joseph Smith) and caused by the Lord (as spoken of in the scriptures).  When the sons of perdition come into the direct presence of the Savior, they will see themselves in their true condition of spiritual filthiness and utter exposure to the demands of justice. They will see the holiness, purity, and righteousness of Jesus Christ, and will be constrained to acknowledge that He has all power to save them and anyone who repents and exercises faith in Him.16  Their guilt and His physical presence combine to “kindle a flame of unquenchable fire” in their minds, from which they seek relief by retreating again to the sleep of spiritual death, rather than remaining awake and alive with an ever-present reminder of their unworthiness.17
Let’s return to our reading in D&C 19:
“For behold, I, God, have suffered these things for all, that they might not suffer if they would repent; But if they would not repent they must suffer even as I; Which suffering caused myself, even God, the greatest of all, to tremble because of pain, and to bleed at every pore, and to suffer both body and spirit--and would that I might not drink the bitter cup and shrink--Nevertheless, glory be to the Father, and I partook and finished my preparations unto the children of men.”18
Notice that the Lord says that he has “suffered these things for all”--what things? Understood in context, He is referring to the torment of the unrepentant wicked, the sons of perdition.  How astonishing!  In atoning for our sins, the Son of God suffered even as the sons of perdition will suffer, drinking the dregs of the most bitter cup in all eternity, a draught so terrible that it is virtually unfathomable to our finite mortal minds! Though He is eternally righteous and did not deserve the punishment He bore, He voluntarily substituted Himself for all of us, so that we need not suffer the penalty for transgressing divine law if we repent and put our trust in Him.  
“Wherefore, I command you again to repent, lest I humble you with my almighty power; and that you confess your sins, lest you suffer these punishments of which I have spoken, of which in the smallest, yea, even in the least degree you have tasted at the time I withdrew my Spirit.”19
The revelation in Section 19 was originally directed to Martin Harris through the Prophet Joseph Smith.  Both Martin and Joseph suffered intense physical, mental, and emotional anguish “at the time [the Lord] withdrew [His] Spirit” when they transgressed the commandments of the Lord and lost the 116 pages of Book of Mormon manuscript. Martin is reported to have exclaimed:  “Oh, I have lost my soul! I have lost my soul!” Joseph likewise lamented: “All is lost, all is lost,” and was inconsolable for a time. Joseph’s mother, Lucy Mack Smith, called it “a day of darkness” and said that “the heavens seemed clothed with blackness, and the earth shrouded with gloom.”20  As difficult as that experience must have been, it was only a taste of “the least degree” of woe suffered by the wicked, and of the tribulation our Savior endured in our behalf so that we can avoid a similar fate.     
D&C 19:1-20 highlights our absolute need for repentance.  Repentance is the only way to evade the doom of the sons of perdition in the Day of Judgment.  It is our only escape from the torment of hell. All who are accountable must repent or be subject to the second death.  There is no middle ground here.  We must submit to Christ and be saved, or reject Him and be damned.  With such a crucial choice to make, can’t we hear the voice of the Good Shepherd lovingly imploring us--
Reverently and meekly now,
Let thy head most humbly bow.
Think of me, thou ransomed one;
Think what I for thee have done.
With my blood that dripped like rain,
Sweat in agony of pain.
With my body on the tree
I have ransomed even thee.
...At the throne I intercede;
For thee ever do I plead.
I have loved thee as thy friend,
With a love that cannot end.
Be obedient, I implore,
Prayerful, watchful evermore,
And be constant unto me,
That thy Savior I may be.21
He has paid the terrible price for our sins.  He has rescued us from the unyielding grip of the adversary, and has set us free--”free forever, knowing good from evil; to act for [ourselves] and not to be acted upon, save it be by the punishment of the law at the great and last day, according to the commandments which God hath to choose liberty and eternal life...or to choose captivity and death.”22  Life or death. Which will we choose?
The Lord’s preference in this matter is perfectly clear.  He is passionately pleading--’Repent.  Come unto me.  Let not this terrible suffering come upon you.  I have suffered these things for you, because I love you and want to save you.  I will encircle you eternally in the arms of my love if you allow me.  Oh, repent, I bid you, repent!  Receive the crown of everlasting life that awaits you in the kingdom of my Father.  Repent and live forevermore!’
1. Alma 31:17.
2. D&C 19:1.
3. D&C 19:2
4. 2 Ne. 9:5; D&C 88:6.
5. D&C 19:3.
6. D&C 19:4.
7. D&C 19:5.
8. D&C 29:26-28.
9. D&C 19:6-7.
10. D&C 19:8-9.
11. D&C 19:10
12. D&C 19:11-12.
13. Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith, 357.
14. D&C 19:13-15.
15. Morm. 9:1-5, italics added.
16. Alma 12:15.
17. It is as if wicked would rather be unconscious than conscious, particularly in the presence of the Lord.  Remember Alma’s words:  “Oh, thought I, that I could be banished and become extinct both soul and body.” See Alma 36:12-16.  They can gain no such relief, however, because they have become immortal with a “perfect remembrance” of their guilt, wickedness, and rebellion.  See Alma 5:18; 11:45.  Though they remain in torment, the excruciating intensity of their misery lessens to some unspecified degree when they depart from the proximity of the Holy One and associate instead with other damned souls in hell like themselves.
18. D&C 19:16-19.
19. D&C 19:20.
20. Richard L. Bushman, Joseph Smith: Rough Rolling Stone, 67-68.
21. Hymn #185, verses 1 and 4.
22. 2 Ne. 2:26-27.

Tuesday, September 8, 2015

How to Reconcile the Book of Mormon with D&C 76

Book of Mormon prophets are consistent in their declaration that in the post-resurrection Judgment, only two classes of individuals exist--the righteous and the wicked.  The righteous are gathered on the right hand of God, the wicked on His left.  The righteous “have a perfect knowledge of their enjoyment, and their righteousness, being clothed with purity, yea even with the robe of righteousness.”1  The wicked are “filthy still,”2 and they “quake, and tremble, and shrink under the glance of his all-searching eye.”3  The righteous “inherit the kingdom of God,”4 while the wicked are “cast out”5 and “inherit the kingdom of the devil.”6
The Problem
When we come to Section 76 of the Doctrine and Covenants, however, we are presented with what seems to be a very different picture of the post-resurrection world.  Here we are introduced to the concept of four general outcomes—three degrees of glory…
“The glory of the celestial is one, even as the glory of the sun is one.  And the glory of the terrestrial is one, even as the glory of the moon is one.  And the glory of the telestial is one, even as the glory of the stars is one; for as one star differs from another star in glory, even so differs one from another in glory in the telestial world.”7
…and one which is not a kingdom of glory:
“These are they who are the sons of perdition, of whom I say that it had been better for them never to have been born; For they are vessels of wrath, doomed to suffer the wrath of God, with the devil and his angels in eternity.”8
This doesn’t sound at all like the dualistic approach of the ancient American prophets.  D&C 76 offers infinite gradations of glory, from celestial to telestial where the inhabitants are “as innumerable as the stars in the firmament of heaven, or as the sand upon the seashore,”9 with only the most wicked souls being cast into outer darkness; whereas, the Book of Mormon presents a traditional heaven-and-hell philosophy with no mention of anything between complete righteousness or utter iniquity.  How can we reconcile these seemingly disparate views?  
The Solution
First and foremost, we must believe that both views are correct, for both were divinely inspired and the Holy Ghost does not contradict Himself!  As President Howard W. Hunter once observed:  “With God our Heavenly Father, all truth, wherever found or however apprehended, is circumscribed into one great whole.  Ultimately, there are no contradictions, no quarrels, no inscrutable paradoxes, no mysteries.”10  
Let’s assume for the moment that the Book of Mormon prophets are speaking of the same overall set of people that are seen by the Prophet Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon in their marvelous vision—everyone, “all nations, kindreds, tongues, and people.”11  If so, we can use the following formula to make a valuable comparison:
A + B = C + D
The left side of the equation is the view from the Book of Mormon.  The right side of the equation is the view from D&C 76.
A = The wicked in the Book of Mormon.
B = The righteous in the Book of Mormon.
C = The sons of perdition in D&C 76.
D = Everyone who inherits a kingdom of glory in D&C 76.
How do we solve an equation with four variables, with two on each side of the equal sign?  If we know that one variable on one side matches another variable on the other side, we can deduce that the remaining variables are equal, too.  In this scenario, if we know that A = C, then B = D.
A = C
The wicked spoken of in the Book of Mormon are easily identifiable as the sons of perdition in D&C 76.  The description of their terrible suffering and fate have numerous parallels.  Here are a few:
Book of Mormon
D&C 76
“They have drunk out of the cup of the wrath of God.”12
“They are vessels of wrath.”13
“Their torment is as a lake of fire and brimstone.”14
“They…shall go away into the lake of fire and brimstone.”15
“There cometh upon them…a second death.”16
“The only ones on whom the second death shall have any power.”17
“The wicked remain as though there had been no redemption made, except it be the loosing of the bands of death.”18
“The only ones who shall not be redeemed in the due time of the Lord after the sufferings of his wrath.”19
“The judgment of an everlasting punishment is…upon them.”20
“They shall go away into everlasting punishment.”21
B = D
If the wicked in the Book of Mormon are sons of perdition, it stands to reason that the righteous spoken of in that volume consist of everyone else who are not sons of perdition--in other words, those of the telestial, terrestrial, and celestial glories—those that “shine forth:”
“And then shall the righteous shine forth in the kingdom of God.  But behold, an awful death cometh upon the wicked; for they die as pertaining to things of righteousness; for they are unclean, and no unclean thing can inherit the kingdom of God; but they are cast out and consigned to partake of the fruits of their labors or their works, which have been evil; and they drink the dregs of a bitter cup.”22
Both Sides of the Equation are the Same
One crucial assumption we’re making in the foregoing formula is that we’re looking at the same set of resurrected souls in both the Book of Mormon and D&C 76.  We generally agree that in D&C 76 we’re not leaving anyone out.  We’re viewing “the resurrection of the dead” where all “shall come forth; they who have done good, in the resurrection of the just; and they who have done evil, in the resurrection of the unjust.”23
It was Joseph and Sidney’s meditation on John 5:29 which prompted the series of visions recorded in D&C 76 in the first place.  The similarity of this biblical scripture to so many others recorded in the Book of Mormon gives us a key to understanding that the revelations in D&C 76 are simply additional light and knowledge concerning the same things written in the Book of Mormon—not unequal views in their overall scope.  Just like D&C 76, the Book of Mormon prophets are writing about the the whole human race, just and unjust, at the conclusion of our second estate.  For example, the prophet Mormon wrote:
“I would that all men might be saved.  But we read that in the great and last day there are some who shall be cast out, yea, who shall be cast off from the presence of the Lord; Yea, who shall be consigned to a state of endless misery, fulfilling the words which say:  They that have done good shall have everlasting life; and they that have done evil shall have everlasting damnation.”24
Other Book of Mormon prophets are likewise clear that they include all people in their view of the resurrection,25 and the Savior Himself used such language when He taught the multitude at the temple in Bountiful.26
When we read about the resurrected righteous in the Book of Mormon, we can infer that whatever is said of them must be applicable across the tiers of resurrected glory spoken of in D&C 76.  If not, our equation is out of balance, and either the Book of Mormon prophets didn’t know what they were talking about, or D&C 76 is blown out of proportion and vastly overrated among the Latter-Day Saints.  (Of course, neither of these absurdities is true!)
What does the Book of Mormon say about the resurrected righteous?
They are free from sin.27
They are happy.28
They are saved.29
They have eternal life.30
They are exalted.31
Even if we agree that recipients of telestial and terrestrial glory are saved, happy, and sanctified, how can we say that they inherit eternal life and exaltation, too?  Very simply—there are no limits to their progression and eventually they become celestial persons with a full measure of all the blessings described in both the Book of Mormon and D&C 76.  They are, in truth, already celestial persons, just with a lesser degree of that same glory.32
The Prophet Joseph Smith taught:
“When you climb up a ladder, you must begin at the bottom, and ascend step by step, until you arrive at the top; and so it is with the principles of the gospel—you must begin with the first, and go on until you learn all the principles of exaltation. But it will be a great while after you have passed through the veil before you will have learned them. It is not all to be comprehended in this world; it will be a great work to learn our salvation and exaltation even beyond the grave.”33
Book of Mormon prophets apparently use a “prophetic perfect” approach in talking about the destiny of the righteous in the hereafter.34  They keep their eyes and ours fixed on the utmost prize.  They speak of the inevitable outcome of traversing the entire path that leads to the tree of life.  They teach us that the sure reward of a continuously contrite heart, coupled with the redeeming power of Jesus Christ, is eternal life and salvation in the kingdom of our Father.
D&C 76 is more like a snapshot of our condition immediately following the resurrection and Judgment. Imagine looking at a photo in a high school yearbook.  The photo shows sophomores, juniors, and seniors seated in a large auditorium, grouped according to their grade.  These are all bright and dedicated students. They have the best teachers available.  They have loving and supporting families.  They have an esprit de corps second to none.  All of these students are going to graduate high school, just in different years, when they are developmentally ready and have completed all the requirements for graduation.35
D&C 76 shows us that our post-resurrection placement in the kingdom of heaven depends on the choices we make in mortality and in the spirit world prior to the Judgment.   Its description of multiple degrees of glory doesn’t disallow the possibility of continued advancement in the eternities; and, to be in harmony with the Book of Mormon, must allow for the eventual exaltation of every last member of the family of Adam who rejects the broad road to perdition.
Although at first glance the Book of Mormon and D&C 76 appear to present dichotomous views on the state of mankind both at and after the resurrection and Judgement, these latter-day scriptures can be harmonized when we realize that they are describing the same overall scene and are identifying classes of individuals that are comparable under closer scrutiny.  The wicked described in the Book of Mormon are the sons of perdition in D&C 76.  The righteous are those of the telestial, terrestrial, and celestial glories.

Valuable insights can be gained from examining side by side these scriptural perspectives of “things as they really will be.”36  The Book of Mormon emphasizes the blessed zenith attained by those that are saved in the kingdom of God.  D&C 76 provides a finer picture of the righteous, emphasizing their varying states of progression at the time of their resurrection, but not precluding the promise of everlasting life to all who give their heart and fealty to the Lord of Life, even Jesus Christ.

1. 2 Ne. 9:14.
2. 2 Ne. 9:16; Mor. 9:14.
3. Mosiah 27:31.
4. 2 Ne. 9:18; 3 Ne. 11:33.
5. 1 Ne. 15:35; Alma 40:26.
6. Alma 41:4.
7. D&C 76:96-98.
8. D&C 76:32-33
9. D&C 76:109.
10. “President’s Formal Charge of Responsibility,” LDS Church News, Nov. 26, 1994.
11. Mosiah 27:25.
12. Mosiah 3:26.
13. D&C 76:33.
14. Mosiah 3:27.
15. D&C 76:36
16. Hel. 14:18.
17. D&C 76:37.
18. Alma 11:41.
19. D&C 76:38.
20. Mosiah 27:31.
21. D&C 76:44.
22. Alma 40:25.
23. D&C 76:16-17.
24: Hel. 12:25-26, italics added.
25. See, for example: 2 Ne. 9:15-16; Mosiah 16:1; Alma 11:44; Moro. 10:34.
26. 3 Ne. 26:4-5.
27. 2 Ne. 33:7; Alma 11:37.
28. 2 Ne. 9:18; Mosiah 2:41; Morm. 7:7.
29. Alma 9:28; 3 Ne. 11:33.
30. Mosiah 15:20-27; Alma 5:58; 11:40; Hel. 12:26.
31. See Alma 5:22-25; 34:36; Hel. 3:28-30.  To “sit down” on a throne in the kingdom of God is emblematic of exaltation.  In addition, see 1 Ne. 16:2; Mosiah 23:22; 3 Ne. 27:20-22.  To be “lifted up at the last day” also alludes to being exalted.
32. See “All Glory is Celestial Glory” on this website.
33. Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith, 348,  italics added.
34. See the article “Prophetic Perfect” in
35. My thanks to a dear friend, Richard Christie, for this metaphor.
36. Jacob 4:13.